Biomedical Physics Laboratory

What is common in oncology and physics?

Physical energy processes take place in cancer cells, and they are made up of levers, discs, electrical particles, pumps, membranes and other electrical and molecular devices, described in physics. So, without a doubt, help of physicists is necessary in order to fight with cancer illnesses successfully, to diagnose cancer timely and accurately, and to treat it effectively without harm to the entire human organism.

Research areas

  • Steady state and time resolved spectroscopy of biologically active molecules, photodrugs, sensitizers, gold-nanoclusters and nanoparticles in aqueous solution, healthy and cancerous cells and experimental animals.
  • Pharmacokinetics, accumulation and distribution of sensitizers, photodrugs, nanoparticles in 2D and 3D structures of healthy, cancerous and stem cells, healthy and cancerous tissues by confocal microscopy, spectroscopy and flow cytometry.
  • The primary photophysical, photochemical processes, and nanotoxicity of biologically active molecules, anticancer drugs, sensitizers biomarkers, nanoparticles and nanoplatforms in vitro and in vivo.
  • Developing of the new multifunctional diagnostics methods and therapy of cancer by implementing nanotechnological solutions - toward theranostics.


  1. Research of nanoparticles and heavy metal toxicity mechanisms on fish during ontogenesis (2016-2018, Head R. Rotomskis).
  2. Response of mesenchymal stem cells and cancerous stem cells to impact of nanoparticles (2014-2016, Head R. Rotomskis).
  3. Modelling of toxicity of nanomaterials (MODENA) TD1204 activities. (2014-2016, Head R. Rotomskis).
  4. The European upconversion network – from the design of photon-upconverting nanomaterials to biomedical applications (2014-2018, Head R. Rotomskis).


  1. Dapkute D, Pleckaitis M, Bulotiene B, Daunoravicius D, Rotomskis R, Karabanovas V. Hitchhiking Nanoparticles: Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Mediated Delivery of Theranostic Nanoparticles. ACS applied materials and interfaces. 2021; 13(37): 43937-43951. doi: 10.1021/acsami.1c10445
  2. Jurgelėnė Ž, Stankevičius M, Stankevičiūtė M, Kazlauskienė N, Katauskis P, Ivanauskas F, Karabanovas V, Rotomskis R. Imaging of the internal chorion structure of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss live embryos and the distribution of quantum dots therein: Towards a deeper understanding of potential nanotoxicity. Science of The Total Environment. 2021; 785:147302: 1-14. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.147302
  3. Kišonas J, Venius J, Grybauskas M, Dabkevičienė D , Burneckis A, Rotomskis R. Acute radiation dermatitis evaluation with reflectance confocal microscopy: a prospective study. Diagnostics. 2021; 11(9): 1670:1-15. doi: 10.3390/diagnostics11091670
  4. Maleckaitė K, Dodonova J, Toliautas S, Žilėnaitė R, Jurgutis D, Karabanovas K, Tumkevičius S, Vyšniauskas A. Designing a Red-Emitting Viscosity-Sensitive BODIPY Fluorophore for Intracellular Viscosity Imaging. Chemistry – a European journal. 2021; 27(67): 16768-16775. doi: 10.1002/chem.202102743
  5. Steponavičienė R, Jonušas J, Griškevičius R, Venius J, Cicėnas S. A Pilot Study of Safer Radiation Dosage to the Heart and Its Subregions. Medicina (Kaunas). 2021; 57(4):320: 1-11. doi: 10.3390/medicina57040320
  6. Voronovic E, Skripka A, Jarockyte G, Ger M, Kuciauskas D, Kaupinis A, Valius M, Rotomskis R, Vetrone F, Karabanovas V. Uptake of Upconverting Nanoparticles by Breast Cancer Cells: Surface Coating versus the Protein Corona. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces. 2021; 13(33): 39076−39087. doi: 10.1021/acsami.1c10618


  1. Poderys V, Jarockyte G, Bagdonas S, Karabanovas V, Rotomskis R. Protein-stabilized gold nanoclusters for PDT: ROS and singlet oxygen generation. J Photochem Photobiol B. 2020 Jan 20;204:111802. doi: 10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2020.111802.
  2. Marin R, Skripka A, Huang Y, Loh TAJ, Mažeika V, Karabanovas V, Chua DHC, Dong C, Canton P, Vetrone F.  Influence of halide ions on the structure and properties of copper indium sulphide quantum dots. Chemical Communications. 2020; 56(22): 3341-3344.  Chem Commun. 2020; DOI: 10.1039/C9CC08291C.
  3. Jarockyte G, Karabanovas V, Rotomskis R, Mobasheri A. Multiplexed Nanobiosensors: Current Trends in Early Diagnostics. Sensors 2020, 20(23), 6890:1-23. 


  1. Astrauskas R, Ivanauskas F, Jarockyte G, Karabanovas V, Rotomskis R. Modeling the uptake of fluorescent molecules into 3D cellular spheroids. Nonlinear Analysis: Modelling and Control. 2019;24(5):838–852. doi: 10.15388/NA.2019.5.9. (IF=2,339)
  2. Skripka A, Dapkutė D, Valančiūnaitė J, Karabanovas V, Rotomskis R. Impact of quantum dot surface on complex formation with chlorin e6 and photodynamic therapy. Nanomaterials (Basel). 2019 Jan; 9(1): 9. doi: 10.3390/nano9010009. (IF= 3,504)
  3. Skripka A, Karabanovas V, Jarockytė G, Marin R, Tam V, Cerruti M, Rotomskis R, Vetrone F. Decoupling theranostics with rare earth doped nanoparticles. Advanced functional materials. 2019;29(1):1-12. (IF= 15,621)
  4. Kundrotas G, Karabanovas V, Plečkaitis M, Juraleviciute M, Steponkiene S, Gudleviciene Z, Rotomskis R.  Uptake and distribution of carboxylated quantum dots in human mesenchymal stem cells: cell growing density matters. J Nanobiotechnology. 2019 Mar 13;17(1):39. doi: 10.1186/s12951-019-0470-6. (IF=5,345)
  5. Mirsanaye K, Golaraei A, Habach F, Žurauskas E, Venius J, Rotomskis R, Barzda V. Polar organization of collagen in human cardiac tissue revealed with polarimetric second-harmonic generation microscopy. Biomed Opt Express. 2019 Sep 10;10(10):5025-5030. doi: 10.1364/BOE.10.005025. (IF=3,910)
  6. Kristinaityte K, Zalewski T, Kempka M, Sakirzanovas S, Baziulyte‑Paulaviciene D, Stefan Jurga S, Rotomskis R, Valeviciene NR.  Spin–Lattice Relaxation and Diffusion Processes in Aqueous Solutions of Gadolinium‑Based Upconverting Nanoparticles at Different Magnetic Fields. Applied Magnetic Resonance, 2019, 50:553–561. (IF=0,780)


  1. Rotomskis R, Jurgelienė Ž, Stankevičius M, Stankevičiūtė M, Kazlauskienė N, Jokšas K, Montvydienė D, Kulvietis V, Karabanovas V. Interaction of carboxylated CdSe/ZnS quantum dots with fish embryos: Towards understanding of nanoparticles toxicity. Sci Total Environ. 2018 Sep 1;635:1280-1291. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.04.206. (IF=5,589)
  2. Cibulskaite Z, Kazlauskiene N, Rotomskis R, Kulvietis V. Toxicity of cadmium-based quantum dots and cadmium to rainbow trout oncorhynchus mykiss (walbaum, 1792) in early development stages. Fresenius Environmental Bulletin. 2018; 27(1): 241-245. (IF=0,691)

  3. Kišonas J, Venius J, Sevriukova O, Grybauskas M, Guogyte K, Burneckis A, Rotomskis R. Application of reflectance confocal microscopy for early diagnosis of radiation-induced acute dermatitis in radiosensitive patient: case study. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2018 Dec 1;182(1):93-97. doi: 10.1093/rpd/ncy135. (IF=0,831)

  4. Saulite L, Pleiko K, Popena I, Dapkute D, Rotomskis R, Riekstina U. Nanoparticle delivery to metastatic breast cancer cells by nanoengineered mesenchymal stem cells. Beilstein J Nanotechnol. 2018; 9: 321–332. doi: 10.3762/bjnano.9.32. (IF=2,269)

  5. Jurgelėnė Ž, Kazlauskienė N, Montvydienė D, Kulvietis V, Rotomskis R, Jokšas K. Embryotoxicity of Quantum Dots in Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss During the Hatching Period. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2018 Aug;101(2):191-196. doi: 10.1007/s00128-018-2367-8. (IF=1,650)

  6. Kristinaityte K, Zalewski T, Kempka M, Sakirzanovas S, Baziulyte-Paulaviciene D, Jurga S, Rotomskis R, Valeviciene NR. Spin–lattice relaxation and diffusion processes in aqueous solutions of gadolinium-based upconverting nanoparticles at different magnetic fields. Applied Magnetic Resonance. 2019; 50:553–561. (IF=0,780)

  7. Neverauskienė A, Maciusovič M, Burkanas M, Gricienė B, Petkevičius L, Zaleckas L, Tamošiūnas A, Venius J. Image based simulation of the low dose computed tomography images suggests 13 mAs 120 kV suitability for non-syndromic craniosynostosis diagnosis without iterative reconstruction algorithms. Eur J Radiol. 2018 Aug;105:168-174. doi: 10.1016/j.ejrad.2018.06.005. (IF=2,948)

  8. Jarockyte G, Dapkute D, Karabanovas V, Daugmaudis JV, Ivanauskas F, Rotomskis R. 3D cellular spheroids as tools for understanding carboxylated quantum dot behavior in tumors. Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj. 2018 Apr;1862(4):914-923. doi: 10.1016/j.bbagen.2017.12.014. (IF=3,681)


  1. Baziulyte-Paulaviciene D, Karabanovas V, Stasys M, Jarockyte G, Poderys V, Sakirzanovas S, Rotomskis R. Synthesis and functionalization of NaGdF4:Yb,Er@NaGdF4 core–shell nanoparticles for possible application as multimodal contrast agents. Beilstein J Nanotechnol. 2017 Sep 1;8:1815-1824. doi: 10.3762/bjnano.8.183. (IF=3,127)
  2. Dapkute D, Steponkiene S, Bulotiene D, Saulite L, Riekstina U, Rotomskis R. Skin-derived mesenchymal stem cells as quantum dot vehicles to tumors. Int J Nanomedicine. 2017 Nov 6;12:8129-8142. doi: 10.2147/IJN.S143367. (IF=4,300)
  3. Jagminas A, Mikalauskaitė A, Karabanovas V, Vaičiūnienė J. Methionine-mediated synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles and functionalization with gold quantum dots for theranostic applications. Beilstein J Nanotechnol. 2017 Aug 22;8:1734-1741. doi: 10.3762/bjnano.8.174. (IF=3,127)
  4. Matulionyte M, Dapkute D, Budenaite L, Jarockyte G, Rotomskis R. Photoluminescent gold nanoclusters in cancer cells: cellular uptake, toxicity, and generation of reactive oxygen species. Int J Mol Sci. 2017 Feb 10;18(2). doi: 10.3390/ijms18020378. (IF=3,226)
  5. Rimeika R, Ciplys D, Poderys V, Rotomskis R, Shurd M.S. Fast-response and low-loss surface acoustic wave humidity sensor based on bovine serum albumin-gold nanoclusters film. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical. 2017;239:352–357. (IF=5,401)
  6. Saulite L, Dapkute D, Pleiko K, Popena I, Steponkiene S, Rotomskis R, Riekstina U. Nano-engineered skin mesenchymal stem cells: potential vehicles for tumour-targeted quantum-dot delivery. Beilstein J Nanotechnol. 2017 Jun 7;8:1218-1230. doi: 10.3762/bjnano.8.123. (IF=3,127)
  7. Stankevicius V, Kuodyte K, Schveigert D, Bulotiene D, Paulauskas T, Daniunaite K, Suziedelis K. Gene and miRNA expression profiles of mouse Lewis lung carcinoma LLC1 cells following single or fractionated dose irradiation. Oncol Lett. 2017 Jun; 13(6): 4190–4200. doi: 10.3892/ol.2017.5877. (IF=1,390)
  8. Stankevicius V, Vasauskas G, Rynkeviciene R, Venius J, Pasukoniene V, Aleknavicius E, Suziedelis K. Microenvironment and Dose-Delivery-Dependent Response after Exposure to Ionizing Radiation in Human Colorectal Cancer Cell Lines. Radiat Res. 2017 Sep;188(3):291-302. doi: 10.1667/RR14658.1. (IF=2,539)
  9. Zalgeviciene V, Kulvietis V, Bulotiene D, Zurauskas E, Laurinaviciene A, Skripka A, Rotomskis R. Quantum dots mediated embryotoxicity via placental damage. Reprod Toxicol. 2017 Oct;73:222-231. doi: 10.1016/j.reprotox.2017.08.016. (IF=2,341)


  1. Ceponis T, Gaubas E, Venius J, Cicinas A, Callens F, Kusakovskij J, Vrielinck H, Mizohata K, Raisanen J, Tikkanen P. ESR spectroscopy of alanine impacted by high energy irradiations for wide range dosimetry. Lithuanian Journal of Physics. 2016; 56(1):49–54. DOI: (IF=0,574)
  2. Damalakiene L, Karabanovas V, Bagdonas S, Rotomskis R. Fluorescence-Lifetime Imaging Microscopy for Visualization of Quantum Dots' Endocytic Pathway. Int J Mol Sci. 2016 Apr; 17(4): 473. doi: 10.3390/ijms17040473. (IF=3,257)
  3. Jarockyte G, Daugelaite E, Stasys M, Statkute U, Poderys V, Tseng TC, Hsu SH, Karabanovas V, Rotomskis R. Accumulation and toxicity of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles in cells and experimental animals. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016; 17(8), 1193:1–13. (IF=3,257)
  4. Poderys V, Matulionyte-Safine M, Rupsys D, Rotomskis R. Protein Stabilized Au Nanoclusters: Spectral Properties And Photostability. Lithuanian Journal of Physics. 2016;56(1):55–65. (IF=0,574)
  5. Stankevicius V, Vasauskas G, Bulotiene D, Butkyte S, Jarmalaite S, Rotomskis R, Suziedelis K. Gene and miRNA expression signature of Lewis lung carcinoma LLC1 cells in extracellular matrix enriched microenvironment. BMC Cancer. 2016 Oct 11;16(1):789. DOI 10.1186/s12885-016-2825-9. (IF=3,265)
  6. Šlėktaitė A, Kubiliūtė R, Sabonis D, Rotomskis R. Relation between spectral and spatial properties of gold nanoclusters modified by the morpholine ligand. Chemija. 2016; 27(2):93–9. (IF=0,547)
  7. Usinskiene J, Ulyte A, Bjornerud A, Venius J, Katsaros VK, Rynkeviciene R, Letautiene S, Norkus D, Suziedelis K, Rocka S, Usinskas A, Aleknavicius E. Optimal differentiation of high- and low-grade glioma and metastasis: a meta-analysis of perfusion, diffusion, and spectroscopy metrics. Neuroradiology. 2016 Apr;58(4):339-50. doi: 10.1007/s00234-016-1642-9. (IF=2,274)
  8. Vaišnorienė I, Didžiapetrienė J, Žalgevičienė V, Laurinavičienė A, Vaišnoras T, Kulvietis V, Rotomskis R. Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) and melanocyte-specific immunostaining of histologic skin sections. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2016 Aug;75(2):439-40. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2016.03.028. (IF=5,621)


  1. Damalakiene L, Karabanovas V, Bagdonas S, Pupelis L, Valius M, Rotomskis R. Suppression of a Specific Intracellular Uptake Pathway by a Saturating Accumulation of Quantum Dots. J Biomed Nanotechnol. 2015 May;11(5):841-53. (IF=7,578)
  2. Matulionytė M, Marcinonytė R, Rotomskis R. Photoinduced spectral changes of photoluminescent gold nanoclusters. J Biomed Opt. 2015 May;20(5):051018. doi: 10.1117/1.JBO.20.5.051018. (IF=2,752)
  3. Rudys R, Bagdonas S, Kirdaitė G, Papečkienė J, Rotomskis R. Multidimensional visualization of healthy and sensitized rabbit knee tissues by means of confocal microscopy. J Biomed Opt. 2015 May;20(5):051035. doi: 10.1117/1.JBO.20.5.051035. (IF=2,752)
  4. Vaitkuvienė A, McDonald M, Vahidpour F, Noben JP, Sanen K, Ameloot M, Ratautaitė V, Kašėta V, Biziulevičienė G, Ramanavičienė A, Nesladek M, Ramanavičius A. Impact of differently modified nanocrystalline diamond on the growth of neuroblastoma cells. N Biotechnol. 2015 Jan 25;32(1):7-12. doi: 10.1016/j.nbt.2014.06.008. (IF=2,898)
  5. Vansevičiūtė R, Venius J, Žukovskaja O, Kanopienė D, Letautienė S, Rotomskis R. 5-aminolevulinic-acid-based fluorescence spectroscopy and conventional colposcopy for in vivo detection of cervical pre-malignancy. BMC Womens Health. 2015 Apr 17;15:35. doi: 10.1186/s12905-015-0191-4. (IF=1,657)


  1. Kalnaitytė A, Bagdonas S, Rotomskis R. Effects of light and protein on photoluminescence stability of thiol-capped CdSe / ZnS quantum dots. Lithuanian Journal of Physics. 2014;54(4): 256–65. (IF=0,424)
  2. Karabanovas V, Skripka A, Valanciunaite J, Kubiliute R, Poderys V, Rotomskis R. Formation of self-assembled quantum dot-chlorin e6 complex: influence of nanoparticles phospholipid coating. J Nanopart Res. 2014;16(11):pii2724. DOI: 10.1007/s11051-014-2508-x. (IF=2,278)
  3. Karabanovas V, Zitkus Z, Kuciauskas D, Rotomskis R, Valius M. Surface properties of quantum dots define their cellular endocytic routes, mitogenic stimulation and suppression of cell migration. J Biomed Nanotechnol. 2014 May;10(5):775-86. (IF=7,578)
  4. Pašukonienė V, Mlynska A, Steponkienė S, Poderys V, Matulionytė M, Karabanovas V, Statkutė U, Purvinienė R, Krasko JA, Jagminas A, Kurtinaitienė M, Strioga M, Rotomskis R. Accumulation and biological effects of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles in human pancreatic and ovarian cancer cells. Medicina (Kaunas). 2014;50(4):237-44. doi: 10.1016/j.medici.2014.09.009. (IF=0,508)
  5. Steponkiene S, Valanciunaite J, Skripka A, Rotomskis R. Cellular uptake and photosensitizing properties of quantum dot-chlorin e6 complex: in vitro study. J Biomed Nanotechnol. 2014 Apr;10(4):679-86. DOI:10.1166/jbn.2014.1738. (IF=7,578)
  6. Vaišnosrienė I, Rotomskis R, Kulvietis V, Eidukevičius R, Žalgevičienė V, Laurinavičienė A, Venius J, Didžiapetrienė J. Nevomelanocytic atypia detection by in vivo reflectance confocal microscopy. Medicina (Kaunas). 2014;50(4):209-15. doi: 10.1016/j.medici.2014.09.008. (IF=0,508)
  7. Valanciunaite J, Klymchenko AS, Skripka A, Richert L, Steponkiene S, Streckyte G, Rotomskis R. A non-covalent complex of quantum dots and chlorine e6: efficient energy transfer and remarkable stability in living cells revealed by FLIM. RSC Advances. 2014;4: 52270–8. (IF=3,708)
  8. Vansevičiūtė R, Venius J, Letautienė S. 5-Aminolevulinic acid-based fluorescence diagnostics of cervical preinvasive changes. Medicina (Kaunas). 2014; 50(3):137–43. (IF=0,508)


  1. Damalakiene L, Karabanovas V, Bagdonas S, Valius M, Rotomskis R. Intracellular distribution of nontargeted quantum dots after natural uptake and microinjection. Int J Nanomedicine. 2013;8:555-68. doi: 10.2147/IJN.S39658. (IF=4,195)
  2. Kubiliūtė R, Maximova KA, Lajevardipour A, Yong J, Hartley JS, Mohsin AS, Blandin P, Chon JW, Sentis M, Stoddart PR, Kabashin A, Rotomskis R, Clayton AH, Juodkazis S. Ultra-pure, water-dispersed Au nanoparticles produced by femtosecond laser ablation and fragmentation. Int J Nanomedicine. 2013;8:2601-11. doi: 10.2147/IJN.S44163. (IF=4,195)
  3. Kulvietis V, Zurauskas E, Rotomskis R. Distribution of polyethylene glycol coated quantum dots in mice skin. Exp Dermatol. 2013 Feb;22(2):157-9. doi: 10.1111/exd.12087. (IF=4,115)
  4. Rotomskis R, Valanciunaite J, Skripka A, Steponkiene S, Spogis G, Bagdonas S, Streckytė G. Complexes of functionalized quantum dots and chlorine e(6) in photodynamic therapy. Lithuanian Journal of Physics. 2013;53(1):57–68. (IF=0,456)
  5. Rudys R, Kirdaite G, Bagdonas S, Leonavicienė L, Bradunaite R, Streckytė G, Rotomskis R. Spectroscopic assessment of endogenous porphyrins in a rheumatoid arthritis rabbit model after the application of ALA and ALA-Me. J Photochem Photobiol B. 2013 Feb 5;119:15-21. doi:10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2012.11.008. (IF=2,803)
  6. Sabonis D, Dauderis G, Rotomskis R. The two photon absorbtion of quantum dots: experimental studies. Proceedings of the 11th International Conference „Medical Physics in the Baltic States“. Kaunas, Lietuva. Technologija. 2013; 11:19–23
  7. Skripka A, Valanciunaite J, Dauderis G, Poderys V, Kubiliute R, Rotomskis R. Two-photon excited Quantum dots as energy donors for photosensitizer chlorin e6. J Biomed Opt. 2013 Jul;18(7):078002. doi: 10.1117/1.JBO.18.7.078002. (IF=2,752)
  8. Vansevičiūtė R, Žukovskaja O, Venius J. Comparison of 5-aminolevulinic acid based fluorescence diagnostics with histology in the detection of cervical neoplasia. Proceedings of the 11th International Conference „Medical Physics in the Baltic States“. Kaunas, Lietuva. Technologija. 2013; 11:12–4
  9. Venius J, Zurauskas E, Rotomskis R. High resolution imaging of the human cardiac conduction system using reflectance confocal microscopy. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2013 Jan;229(1):67-73. (IF=1,283)


  1. Lapienis J, Žalgevičienė V, Bagdonas S, Zakarevičius E, Žurauskas E, Graželienė G, Didžiapetrienė J, Rotomskis R. Microscopic evidence of placenta as a natural barrier for a photosensitizer. Vet Med Zoot. 2012; 60(82):39−44. (IF=0,101)
  2. Žalgevičienė V, Kulvietis V, Bulotienė D, Didžiapetrienė J, Rotomskis R. The effect of nanoparticles in rats during critical periods of pregnancy. Medicina (Kaunas). 2012;48(5):256-64. (IF=0,550)

Updated 2023-01-13 13:27